Types of Kidney Stones:
- Calcium Oxalate
- Uric acid
Intro: forms from a combination of wastes and minerals. Usually becomes symptomatic when move from kidney through ureters to bladder. Smaller stones can cause pain as well, till they pass out and larger stones get stuck and leads to infection, therefore, need to be broken down via sound waves or need surgical removal. Such patients do require dietary changes and medications to prevent future risks.
Risk factors: for men risk increases after 40, for women at age of 50, though the kidney stones can develop at any age. Risk heightens with obesity as well. Diet high in salt, sugar, protein increases the risk and so does the low water intake. Certain drugs, GIT disorders, hyperparathyroidism and gout up the risks.
Symptoms: most common symptoms are pain & blood in urine. Pain is usually at upper abdomen or lower back with nausea, vomiting and frequent urination.
Diagnosis and treatment: diagnosis is usually based on symptoms history, classical pain signs, bloody urine, X ray, ultrasounds and blood urine tests.
Smaller stones can be passed by lots of fluid intake and pain medications and drugs for relaxing ureters.
Larger stones may require lithotripsy (procedure using sound waves) or surgery.
Thiazides can help in preventing kidney stones; allopurinols are used for high uric acid conditions.